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The Ramayana, Book 5 of 6: Ramayan of Valmiki (Forgotten Books) | Unknown | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. The Ramayan of Valmiki Book IV | Valmiki, Griffith, Ralph T.H. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Ramayana (Buch ) (Deutsche Übersetzung) (German Edition) [Valmiki, Undine und Book recommendations, author interviews, editors' picks, and more. Ramayana: The Game of Life - Book 2: Conquer Change von Vilas, Shubha bei x8events.nl - ISBN X - ISBN - Jaico. This book was converted from its physical edition to the di To ask other readers questions about The Rámáyan of Válmíki, please sign up.
Lesen Sie „Hindu literature: Comprising The Book of good counsels, Nala and Damayanti, The Ramayana, and Sakoontala [Illustrated]“ von Anonymous. Das Ramayana in deutscher Übersetzung. erschienen) und der Verlag meiner Ausgabe: Eastern Book House, Rajendra Nagar/Patna, Nachdruck von The Ramayan is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is attributed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon (smṛti). The Ramayana is one. Every situation in the Ramayana is a reflection of our modern dilemmas, and teaches us to: - Face challenges positively. Auch, weil dies die einzige, fast komplette englische Übersetzung war, die mir am Anfang zur Verfügung stand. Original Meerjungfrau Spiele De. Die Geschichte um den allseits geliebten Prinzen Rama, der von seinem Vater dazu gezwungen wird, ins Exil zu gehen, und dort dann Abenteuer zu bestehen, unter anderem seine Frau Sita aus den Klauen des Dämonenkönigs Ravana zu befreien, kann schon als Urform des Epos bezeichnet werden. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Neu kaufen EUR 22, Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the Video Slots Online Free Bonus Round. Amazon Second Chance Freispiele Casino Stargames it on, trade it in, give it a second life. Brand new Book. According to Jain cosmologyevery half time cycle has nine sets of BalaramaVasudeva and prativasudeva. On being asked to prove his devotion to Rama, Hanuman tears his chest open and to everyone's surprise, there is an Online Spelletjes of Rama and Sita inside his chest. When only three years are left of his exile, a rishi named Sutheekshna tells Rama that he must seek out the great sage Agastya and obtain his blessing. This is probably going to contain all sorts of spoilers, fortunately if you have decided to read this behemoth of a story you probably have already read the summary, so choose as you like, Www.Book Of Ramayan continue reading or not. So he gets Sita back. The epic, traditionally Casino Baden Schweiz to the Maharishi Valmikinarrates the life of Ramathe legendary Kosala Kingdom. The Trigartas entered the Matsya kingdom from the south-east, and while Virata went out with his troops to meet the foe, Duryodhan with his Kuru forces fell on the kingdom from the north. Lute and lyre poured forth their music, parrot flew from tree to tree, Through the corridor of creepers, painted rooms by artists done, And the halls where scented Champak and the flaming Asok School Of Dragons Spielen, Through the portico of splendour graced by silver, tusk and gold, Radiant with his thought of gladness walked the monarch proud and bold.
Sundara Kand forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramyana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman 's adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka.
On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities. He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Hanuman assistance and offers him rest.
Hanuman refuses because there is little time remaining to complete the search for Sita. After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka.
Hanuman fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana.
He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. Hanuman reassures Sita, giving Ram's signet ring as a sign of good faith.
He offers to carry Sita back to Ram; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramyana will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama — "When Rama is not there Ravana carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana was not there, Hanuman carried Sita back to Ram".
She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction. Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors.
He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita.
He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island.
The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news. Also known as Lanka Kanda , this book describes the war between the army of Rama and the army of Ravana.
Having received Hanuman's report on Sita, Rama and Lakshmana proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea. There they are joined by Ravana's renegade brother Vibhishana.
The apes named Nala and Nila construct a floating bridge known as Rama Setu  across the sea, using stones that floated on water because they had Ram's name written on them.
The princes and their army cross over to Lanka. A lengthy war ensues. During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded.
So Hanuman assumes a gigantic form and flies from Lanka to the Himalayas. Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka.
Eventually, the war ends when Rama kills Ravana. Rama then installs Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka. On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo an Agni Pariksha test of fire to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity.
When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni , lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence. In Tulsidas 's Ramacharitamanas , Sita was under the protection of Agni see Maya Sita so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama.
Uttara Kanda is the last book of Ramayana. It is a book of made up of conversations between Kakbhusundi and Garud.
This book was added by Tulsidas after hearing it from Kakbhusundi and Garud. At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya with Sita, Lakshmana and Hanuman, where the coronation is performed.
On being asked to prove his devotion to Rama, Hanuman tears his chest open and to everyone's surprise, there is an image of Rama and Sita inside his chest.
Rama rules Ayodhya and the reign is called Ram-Rajya a place where the common folk are happy, fulfilled and satisfied.
This is a book kanda which was not written neither in the original Valmiki Ramayan nor by Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas. In this chapter, as time passes in reign of Rama, spies start getting rumours that people are questioning Sita's purity as she stayed in the home of another man for a year without her husband.
The common folk start gossiping about Sita and question Ram's decision to make her Queen. Rama is extremely distraught on hearing the news, but finally tells Lakshmana that the purity of the Queen of Ayodhya has to be above any gossip and rumour.
He instructs him to take Sita to a forest outside Ayodhya and leave her there. Further, to tell her not to identify herself as the Queen of Ayodhya as that would be an insult to our forefathers.
Lakshmana reluctantly drops Sita in a forest for another exile. Sita finds refuge in Sage Valmiki 's ashram, where she gives birth to twin boys, Luv and Kush.
Meanwhile, Rama conducts an Ashwamedha yajna A holy declaration of the authority of the king. Luv and Kusha capture the horse sign of the yajna and defeat the whole army of Ayodhya which come to protect the horse.
Later on, both the brothers defeat Lakshmana , Bharat, Shatrughan and other warriors and take Hanuman as prisoner. Finally Rama himself arrives and defeats the two mighty brothers.
Valmiki updates Sita about this development and advises both the brothers to go to Ayodhya and tell the story of Sita's sacrifice to the common folks.
Both brothers arrive at Ayodhya but face many difficulties while convincing the people. Hanuman helps both the brothers in this task.
At one point of time, Valmiki brings Sita forward. Seeing Sita, Rama realises that Luv and Kush are his own sons. Again complicit Nagarsen One of the primaries who instigated the hatred towards Sita challenges Sita's character and asks her to prove her purity.
Sita is overflown with emotions and decides to go back to Mother Earth from where she emerged. She prays to her mother Bhoomidevi Goddess of Earth , the ground breaks into half and closes after Sita vanishes into it.
Rama rules Ayodhya for many years and finally takes Samadhi into Sarayu river along with his 3 brothers and leaves the world. He goes back to Vaikuntha in his Vishnu form.
As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana survive. In particular, the Ramayana related in north India differs in important respects from that preserved in south India and the rest of southeast Asia.
There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India. Some of them differ significantly from each other.
During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram , known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil , but references to Ramayana story appear in Tamil literature as early as 3rd century CE.
The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese by Madhava Kandali.
Valmiki's Ramayana inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas by Tulsidas in , an epic Awadhi a dialect of Hindi version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti ; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana.
Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana in the 17th century. There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana , prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story.
Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali.
Adbhuta Ramayana is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki — intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki Ramayana.
In this variant of the narrative, Sita is accorded far more prominence, such as elaboration of the events surrounding her birth — in this case to Ravana 's wife, Mandodari as well as her conquest of Ravana's older brother in the Mahakali form.
Even before Kambar wrote the Ramavataram in Tamil in the 12th century AD, there are many ancient references to the story of Ramayana, implying that the story was familiar in the Tamil lands even before the Common Era.
Sita was the wife of Rama. To protect his children from his wife Kaikeyi, who wished to promote her son Bharata, Dasharatha sent the three to a hermitage in the Himalayas for a twelve-year exile.
There is no Ravan in this version i. But, Ravana appears in other Buddhist literature, the Lankavatara Sutra. Jain versions of the Ramayana can be found in the various Jain agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana story of Padmaja and Rama , Padmaja being the name of Sita , Hemacandra 's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra hagiography of 63 illustrious persons , Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara.
According to Jain cosmology , every half time cycle has nine sets of Balarama , Vasudeva and prativasudeva. Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana are the eighth baladeva , vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively.
Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half time cycle and jointly rule half the earth as half- chakravartins.
Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the jinacharitra lives of jinas by Acharya Bhadrabahu 3d—4th century BCE.
Perhaps this is because Rama, a liberated Jain Soul in his last life, is unwilling to kill. On the other hand, Lakshmana and Ravana go to Hell.
However, it is predicted that ultimately they both will be reborn as upright persons and attain liberation in their future births.
According to Jain texts , Ravana will be the future Tirthankara omniscient teacher of Jainism. The Jain versions have some variations from Valmiki's Ramayana.
These four queens had four sons. Aparajita's son was Padma and he became known by the name of Rama. Sumitra's son was Narayana: he came to be known by another name, lakshmana.
Kaikeyi's son was Bharata and Suprabha's son was Shatrughna. Furthermore, not much was thought of Ram's fidelity to Sita.
Furthermore, Sita takes renunciation as a Jain ascetic after Rama abandons her and is reborn in heaven. Rama, after lakshman's death, also renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain monk.
Ultimately, he attains Kevala Jnana omniscience and finally liberation. Rama predicts that Ravana and Lakshmana, who were in the fourth hell , will attain liberation in their future births.
Accordingly, Ravana is the future tirthankara of the next half ascending time cycle and Sita will be his Ganadhara. In Guru Granth Sahib , there is a description of two types of Ramayana.
One is a spiritual Ramayana which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana is ego, Sita is budhi intellect , Rama is inner soul and Laxman is mann attention, mind.
Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world.
Guru Granth Sahib states:. Rather there is no Ramayana written by any Guru. Guru Gobind Singh however is known to have written Ram Avatar in a text which is highly debated on its authenticity.
Guru Gobind Singh clearly states that though all the 24 avatars incarnated for the betterment of the world, but fell prey to ego and therefore were destroyed by the supreme creator.
He also said that the almighty, invisible, all prevailing God created great numbers of Indras, Moons and Suns, Deities, Demons and sages, and also numerous saints and Brahmanas enlightened people.
But they too were caught in the noose of death Kaal transmigration of the soul. Besides being the site of discovery of the oldest surviving manuscript of the Ramayana , Nepal gave rise to two regional variants in mid 19th — early 20th century.
One, written by Bhanubhakta Acharya , is considered the first epic of Nepali language , while the other, written by Siddhidas Mahaju in Nepal Bhasa was a foundational influence in the Nepal Bhasa renaissance.
Ramayana written by Bhanubhakta Acharya is one of the most popular verses in Nepal. The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta.
It adapts the Hindu concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayana , including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Maccha , a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions.
Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance , theatre known as lakhorn luang the foundation of the royal ballet , poetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor Wat.
One of the recognizable modifications is the inclusion of the indigenous Javanese guardian demigod, Semar , and his sons, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong who make up the numerically significant four Punokawan or "clown servants".
Kakawin Ramayana was further developed on the neighboring island of Bali becoming the Balinese Ramakavaca. The bas-reliefs of Ramayana and Krishnayana scenes are carved on balustrades of the 9th century Prambanan temple in Yogyakarta ,  as well as in the 14th century Penataran temple in East Java.
The performance also includes a fire show to describe the burning of Lanka by Hanuman. One example of a dance production of the Ramayana in Java is the Ramayana Ballet performed on the Trimurti Prambanan open air stage, with the three main prasad spires of the Prambanan Hindu temple as a backdrop.
The story of Lakshmana and Rama is told as the previous life of Gautama buddha. Yama Zatdaw is the Burmese version of Ramayana.
It is also considered the unofficial national epic of Myanmar. There are nine known pieces of the Yama Zatdaw in Myanmar.
The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of the jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism.
This Burmese version is also heavily influenced by Ramakien Thai version of Ramayana which resulted from various invasions by Konbaung Dynasty kings toward the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
The Maharadia Lawana , an epic poem of the Maranao people of the Philippines , has been regarded as an indigenized version of the Ramayana since it was documented and translated into English by Professor Juan R.
Francisco and Nagasura Madale in Francisco, an indologist from the University of the Philippines Manila , believed that the Ramayana narrative arrived in the Philippines some time between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India.
By the time it was documented in the s, the character names, place names, and the precise episodes and events in Maharadia Lawana's narrative already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana.
Francisco believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia and Java even before the story was heard by the Maranao, and that upon reaching the Maranao homeland, the story was " further indigenized to suit Philippine cultural perspectives and orientations.
It is a long read and took me a while to complete. As most of the Indians, I wa There was a line in the final credits background song in Ramananda Sagar's Ramayana, which I fondly watched as a child- "Puni Puni Kitne hi Kahe Sunave, Jiya ki Pyaas bujhat na Bujhae", which loosely translates to-" Even after repeated re-tellings of this beautiful story of Shree Ram, the heart does not get tired of listening to it".
As most of the Indians, I was aware of most of the events and narratives that build up this epic tale but novelty is not what I sought when I decided to take up this as my next read.
The excellent style of C. Rajagopalachari in presenting this story is the pudding on the cake. The book takes direct cues from Valmiki Ramayana, which focused more on the human side of Rama than the divine side, which is the focus in the versions of Tulasidas and Kamban.
The flow of the book is bit on the slower side, which helps the reader to get absorbed and empathize with the emotions that the characters are going through at a point of time.
One of the most elaborate sections that deserve a special mention are- Dasaratha's longing for Rama at the time of his going on exile, Rama's pain after the abdustion of Sita and Kumbhakarana's dialogue with Ravana before the ultimate battle which addresses the moral dilemma that he faces.
One of the points that this book touches upon is the comparison of Vibhishana and Kumbhakarana and their relative stance on the principle of dharma.
Both are correct in their own stances but, the author Rajaji treats the Dharma of Vibhishana to be the better choice in such a situations and rightly absolves Vibhishana of being called a traitor to the Rakhshasa family.
Overall, this book is a great read. For people who are well versed with the story of Ramayana, there is nothing new as far as the content is concerned, but the treatment of the epic by Rajaji, who himself was one of the most intellectually distinguished personalities of his time; is commendable.
I will rate this book as five. Go pick up your copy or download it on your kindle for just 99 bucks. Anyone who wants to know how the gods and goddesses really live should read this.
It's a rollicking tale of romance and intrigue that even after years of telling seems fresh and current.
It's sheer humanity defrocks religious dogma that often seems oppressive, overbearing, and out of touch with the real world of human desires and emotions.
A good time is had by all including the bad guys and girls who, having been resoundingly defeated, just seem happy to have resolved some of their karma as Anyone who wants to know how the gods and goddesses really live should read this.
A good time is had by all including the bad guys and girls who, having been resoundingly defeated, just seem happy to have resolved some of their karma as they dissolve into nothingness and prepare to return in another incarnation hopefully in a somewhat less combative frame of mind.
Each character becomes a lovable reflection of ourselves and even the evil Ravannna shows us a touch of humor and wisdom which may help us to rest a little easier with our own dark side.
There is something for ever taste here. Of course the romantics among us are served up a timeless love story, that of Prince Rama and his beautiful and seductive consort Sita, from which modern soap operas could learn a thing or two.
Needless to say, love wins out, despite every effort by the forces of evil to separate the devoted duo. Lest the action crowd fear that they will be fed a steady diet of mush mush, be reassured.
Your imagination will be stretched to it's limit and there are enough special effects and wizardry to keep Harry Potter fans waving their wands for more.
They can read the Mahabharata next For those who require that their spirituality be a little less seasoned with sex, and the intrigue and violence that often goes with it do not despair.
You have not been forgotten, for in the midst of the worst that humanity can do to itself, as heads are lopped off and blood flows unconditionally, there are doses of profound wisdom which, if swallowed and digested, will definitely keep the devil away.
I know. I've tried it and it does work. There are a few reasons I am giving this text just two stars. First and foremost among these reasons is for the quality and style of the translation.
It is hard for me to believe that a translator could take the liberties that this one has with such an ancient and sacred text, and yet here we are.
The translator made the decision to remove tens, if not a hundred or more cantos from this version of the Ramayana, for various reasons, including a personal feeling that certain content was not approp There are a few reasons I am giving this text just two stars.
The translator made the decision to remove tens, if not a hundred or more cantos from this version of the Ramayana, for various reasons, including a personal feeling that certain content was not appropriate for a "modern" audience, or simply that some cantos were too repetitive, boring, didn't fit with the rest of the story, or were too tedious to translate.
Further, in the future I think that I would choose to read a version which had been translated accurately, as opposed to altered in order to match the meter in English.
The rhyming style is indeed simple and tedious to read. The language is understandably antiquated, yet somehow this translation seems more stale than other equally ancient verses, perhaps that is the nature of the original text, but more likely it is the fault of the translation.
All of this being said, I think that in order to fully judge the Ramayana itself I would have to read at least a few parts of other translations.
My personal feelings about characters and certain aspects of the story reflect my own values, which are opposed to some of what appears in this text.
Apr 25, Ganesh Muthupalani rated it it was amazing. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers.
To view it, click here. A beautiful story that has numerous morals embedded in it. Even till today, the story of Ramayana is recited and narrated worldwide.
Rajagopalachari's book is a concise version but he has presented the story beautifully. Rajagopalachari, throughout the book, recommends one to visit the work by Valmeeki original narrator and Kamban later translated into Tamil for the vivid descriptions.
Here's a really quick summary of A beautiful story that has numerous morals embedded in it. Here's a really quick summary of Ramayana.
In the forest Seeta was attracted by the golden deer and Rama went after it. At that time, the wicked Ravana kidnapped Seeta.
Lord Rama crossed the ocean and entered the city of Lanka. He then destroyed the city of Lanka, killed Raavana and set Seeta free.
It was a magical feeling to visualize the story. I loved the book. The story started up slowly but then after story on Rama's expelled from his father's kingdom things start to warm up.
Towards the end on Rama vs Ravana confrontation storyline is very exciting. During my jr. Everything that I heard before about Ramayana is true Hi!
Everything that I heard before about Ramayana is true, regarding so high virtues on the characters: Rama, Lakshmana, Hanuman representing goodness, honor, courage.
The apparance on the Hanuman monkey help out Rama, and so on. I am very glad to read this book as it complements different concepts that heard around my yoga practice atmosphere.
With excitement, Checo A transcendental epic tragedy of Divine sorts. A story with as much beauty and poetry as philosophy and truths.
Decisions, consequences, tragedy, nobility of spirit, height of thought, duty and unflinching righteousness. It is as well a "fantastic" story, with things that can happen only in spiritual manifestations of the spiritual realm, such as flying giant monkeys which think and talk, A transcendental epic tragedy of Divine sorts.
It is as well a "fantastic" story, with things that can happen only in spiritual manifestations of the spiritual realm, such as flying giant monkeys which think and talk, flying mountains, a giant prehistoric world war, a sure entertaining and edifying epic.
Jan 14, Kavya Chilukuri rated it really liked it. A must read for those who want to get their facts right about the mythological Or might I say historical story.
Rajaji's thoughts and opinions and the slight variations in the versions by Kamban and Valmeeki are gently woven into the storytelling, making it a very enjoyable and informative read.
Kids would find this very enlightening and enjoyable as this prose is generally devoid of philosophical opinions which are usually found in such books and may serve as a detractor for young minds.
Ramayan A must read for those who want to get their facts right about the mythological Or might I say historical story. Ramayan is a must read!
May 06, Ajay rated it it was amazing. Even though i knew this epic, it's a different experience to read the work of Rajaji. Simple to read, pointing out the different views by different authors.
Its a mix of Kambar and Valmiki Ramayana. It just gives a whole new perspective. May 14, Mukundhan Sampath rated it it was amazing.
Excellent book! An authority on Ramayana! Superb language and very concise. In my opinion, a must read. Jan 19, Satwik rated it it was amazing.
I read this book due to my curiosity as the characters in the book are heard by every Indian on a daily basis. And this book is not the original version but a concise version of original Valmiki Ramayana By Rajaji.
Why i Liked this book - - It gives the list of virtues that a Human being must possess I read this book due to my curiosity as the characters in the book are heard by every Indian on a daily basis.
Oct 08, Felix rated it really liked it Shelves: classical-period , epic , spirituality , mythology , south-asia , sanskrit. This book is a retelling of Valmiki's ancient poem, the Ramayana.
The original poem is tremendously long - usually running for at least three large volumes in translation. For many readers without a scholarly or religious interest in ancient India, this is just too long.
For many more particularly non-Indian readers, the original may also pose certain cultural challenges. Rajagopalachari here provides a bridge across these gulfs.
His retelling is targeted both at adults and at children. He writ This book is a retelling of Valmiki's ancient poem, the Ramayana.
He writes himself in the epilogue: A word to the children who read these chapters. I have told the story of the Prince of Ayodhya mainly for your sake.
Grownup people may read Vaalmeeki and Kamban. As such, this isn't the most linguistically rich retelling of the Ramayana.
Nevertheless, it's a real joy to read. The story itself follows a great prince, Rama, who through a series of treacherous events ends up living as an exile in the forest.
There, he faces various trials, including the kidnapping of his wife, whom he struggles to recover. If that summary sounds familiar, that's probably because it is.
The Ramayana falls comfortably within the archetypal tradition of 'hero proving himself in the wilderness' stories.
There are similar traits in the Epic of Gilgamesh as well as in the poetry of Ovid, and in no shortage of early English poetry - to name just a few examples.
Of course, that is no discredit to the story. This archetypal narrative is one that we hear again and again - and it never gets old.
I fear there is a tendency to imagine the literature of ancient times as being something centred around South-Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Besides the Bhagavad Gita , this was my first prolonged exposure to the literary tradition of Ancient India. I had little preconceived notions going into it.
I was pleasantly surprised to find a story that reminded of Homer, all the while carrying with it the same weight, and no doubt a similar influence too.
It never ceases to amaze me the richness of Indian mythology and its world building. Yuddha The War in Ceylon. Aswa-Medha Sacrifice of the Horse.
Astra Darsana The Tournament. Page II. Rajasuya The Imperial Sacrifice. Dyuta The Fatal Dice. Go-Harana Cattle-Lifting. Udyoga The Council of War.
Bhishma-Badha Fall of Bhishma. Drona-Badha Fall of Drona. Karna-Badha Fall of Karna. Sraddha Funeral Rites. Peaceful lived the righteous people, rich in wealth in merit high, Envy dwelt not in their bosoms and their accents shaped no lie, Fathers with their happy households owned their cattle, corn and gold, Galling penury and famine in Ayodhya had no hold, Neighbours lived in mutual kindness helpful with their ample wealth, None who begged the wasted refuse, none who lived by fraud and stealth!
And they wore the gem and earring, wreath and fragrant sandal paste, And their arms were decked with bracelets, and their necks with nishkas graced, Cheat and braggart and deceiver lived not in the ancient town, Proud despiser of the lowly wore not insults in their frown, Edition: current; Page: [ 3 ] Poorer fed not on the richer, hireling friend upon the great, None with low and lying accents did upon the proud man wait!
Twice-born men were free from passion, lust of gold and impure greed, Faithful to their Rites and Scriptures, truthful in their word and deed, Altar blazed in every mansion, from each home was bounty given, Stooped no man to fulsome falsehood, questioned none the will of Heaven.
Kshatras bowed to holy Brahmans, Vaisyas to the Kshatras bowed, Toiling Sudras lived by labour, of their honest duty proud, To the Gods and to the Fathers, to each guest in virtue trained, Rites were done with due devotion as by holy writ ordained.
Pure each caste in due observance, stainless was each ancient rite, And the nation thrived and prospered by its old and matchless might, And each man in truth abiding lived a long and peaceful life, With his sons and with his grandsons, with his loved and honoured wife.
Thus was ruled the ancient city by her monarch true and bold, As the earth was ruled by Manu in the misty days of old, Troops who never turned in battle, fierce as fire and strong and brave, Guarded well her lofty ramparts as the lions guard the cave.
Queens of proud and peerless beauty born of houses rich in fame, Loved of royal Dasa-ratha to his happy mansion came, Queen Kausalya blessed with virtue true and righteous Rama bore, Queen Kaikeyi young and beauteous bore him Bharat rich in lore, Queen Simitra bore the bright twins, Lakshman and Satrughna bold, Four brave princes served their father in the happy days of old!
II: Mithila, and the Breaking of the Bow Janak monarch of Videha spake his message near and far,— He shall win my peerless Sita who shall bend my bow of war,— Suitors came from farthest regions, warlike princes known to fame, Vainly strove to wield the weapon, left Videha in their shame.
Gods before the bow of Rudra have in righteous terror quailed. Free to him this royal dome, Since my kingdom is his empire and my palace is his home, And the maidens, flame-resplendent, done each fond Kautuka rite, Beaming in their bridal beauty tread the sacrificial site!
Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] And a rain of flowers descended from the sky serene and fair, And a soft celestial music filled the fresh and fragrant air, Bright Gandharvas skilled in music waked the sweet celestial song, Fair Apsaras in their beauty on the green sward tripped along!
As the flowery rain descended and the music rose in pride, Thrice around the lighted altar every bridegroom led his bride, And the nuptial rites were ended, princes took their brides away, Janak followed with his courtiers, and the town was proud and gay!
VII: Return to Ayodhya With his wedded sons and daughters and his guard in bright array, To the famed and fair Ayodhya, Dasa-ratha held his way, And they reached the ancient city decked with banners bright and brave, And the voice of drum and trumpet hailed the home-returning brave.
Fragrant blossoms strewed the pathway, song of welcome filled the air, Joyous men and merry women issued forth in garments fair, And they lifted up their faces and they waved their hands on high, And they raised the voice of welcome as their righteous king drew nigh.
Greeted by his loving subjects, welcomed by his priests of fame, Dasa-ratha with the princes to his happy city came, With the brides and stately princes in the town he held his way, Entered slow his lofty palace bright as peak of Himalay.
Queen Kausalya blessed with virtue, Queen Kaikeyi in her pride. Queen Sumitra sweetly loving, greeted every happy bride, Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] Soft-eyed Sita noble-destined, Urmila of spotless fame, Mandavi and Sruta-kirti to their loving mothers came.
Decked in silk and queenly garments they performed each pious rite, Brought their blessings on the household, bowed to Gods of holy might, Bowed to all the honoured elders, blest the children with their love, And with soft and sweet endearment by their loving consorts moved.
And he pleased his happy mother with a fond and filial care, And his elders and his kinsmen with devotion soft and fair, Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] Brahmans blessed the righteous Rama for his faith in gods above, People in the town and hamlet blessed him with their loyal love!
Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] For his great and gallant princes were to him his life and light, Were a part of Dasa-ratha like his hands and arms of might, But of all his righteous children righteous Rama won his heart, As Swayambhu of all creatures, was his dearest, holiest part, For his Rama strong and stately was his eldest and his best, Void of every baser passion and with every virtue blest!
Soft in speech, sedate and peaceful, seeking still the holy path, Calm in conscious worth and valour, taunt nor cavil waked his wrath, In the field of war excelling, boldest warrior midst the bold, In the palace chambers musing on the tales by elders told, Faithful to the wise and learned, truthful in his deed and word, Rama dearly loved his people and his people loved their lord!
To the Brahmans pure and holy Rama due obeisance made, To the poor and to the helpless deeper love and honour paid, Spirit of his race and nation was to high-souled Rama given, Thoughts that widen human glory, deeds that ope the gates of heaven!
Not intent on idle cavil Rama spake with purpose high, And the God of speech might envy when he spake or made reply, In the learning of the Vedas highest meed and glory won, In the skill of arms the father scarcely matched he gallant son!
Taught by sages and by elders in the manners of his race, Rama grew in social virtues and each soft endearing grace, Taught by inborn pride and wisdom patient purpose to conceal, Deep determined was his effort, dauntless was his silent will!
Dear to him appeared his purpose, Rama to his people dear, Private wish and public duty made his path serene and clear, Dasa-ratha called his Council, summoned chiefs from town and plain, Welcomed too from distant regions monarchs and the kings of men, Mansions meet for prince and chieftain to his guests the monarch gave, Gracious as the Lord of Creatures held the gathering rich and brave!
Peers and burghers, let your monarch, now his lifelong labour done, For the weal of loving subjects on his empire seat his son, Indra -like in peerless valour, rishi -like in holy lore, Rama follows Dasa-ratha, but in virtues stands before!
Speak your thought and from this bosom lift a load of toil and care, On the proud throne of my fathers let me place a peerless heir, Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] Speak your thought, my chiefs and people, if this purpose please you well, Or if wiser, better counsel in your wisdom ye can tell, Speak your thought without compulsion, though this plan to me be dear, If some middle course were wiser, if some other way were clear!
Bright Immortals know his valour; with his brother Lakshman bold He hath never failed to conquer hostile town or castled hold, And returning from his battles, from the duties of the war, Riding on his royal tusker or his all-resistless car, As a father to his children to his loving men he came, Blessed our homes and maids and matrons till our infants lisped his name, For our humble woes and troubles Rama hath the ready tear, To our humble tales of suffering Rama lends his willing ear!
Actors gay and nimble dancers, singers skilled in lightsome song, With their antics and their music pleased the gay and gathered throng, And the people met in conclaves, spake of Rama, Regent Heir, And the children by the road-side lisped of Rama brave and fair!
Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] Women wove the scented garland, merry maids the censer lit, Men with broom and sprinkled water swept the spacious mart and street, Rows of trees and posts they planted hung with lamps for coming night, That the midnight dark might rival splendour of the noonday light!
And the rolling tide of nations raised their voices loud and high, Like the tide of sounding ocean when the full moon lights the sky, And Ayodhya thronged by people from the hamlet, mart and lea, Was tumultuous like the ocean thronged by creatures of the sea!
Know the truth, O witless woman! Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] Through the shady palace garden where the peacock wandered free.
Lute and lyre poured forth their music, parrot flew from tree to tree, Through the corridor of creepers, painted rooms by artists done, And the halls where scented Champak and the flaming Asok shone, Through the portico of splendour graced by silver, tusk and gold, Radiant with his thought of gladness walked the monarch proud and bold.
Through the lines of scented blossoms which by limpid waters shone, And the rooms with seats of silver, ivory bench and golden throne.
Thoughts of love and gentle dalliance woke within his ancient heart, And the magic of her beauty and the glamour of her art, With a soft desire the monarch vainly searched the vanished fair, Found her not in royal chamber, found her not in gay parterre!
Thither flew the stricken monarch; on the bare and unswept ground, Trembling with tumultuous passion was the Queen Kaikeyi found, On the cold uncovered pavement sorrowing lay the weeping wife, Young wife of an ancient husband, dearer than his heart and life!
If some unknown ailment pains thee, evil spirit of the air, Skilled physicians wait upon thee, priests with incantations fair, If from human foe some insult, wipe thy tears and doom his fate, Rich reward or royal vengeance shall upon thy mandate wait!
Banish far my Queen Kausalya, Queen Sumitra saintly wife, Wrench from me my ancient empire, from my bosom wrench my life But with brave and princely Rama never can his father part, Till his ancient life is ended, cold and still his beating heart!
Ask for other boon, Kaikeyi, aught my sea-girt empire yields, Wealth or treasure, gem or jewel, castled town or smiling fields, Ask for other gift, Kaikeyi, and thy wishes shall be given, Stain me not with crime unholy in the eye of righteous Heaven!
Queen Kausalva, dear-loved woman! Reft of sense appeared the monarch, crushed beneath a load of pain, Heaving oft a sigh of sorrow as his heart would break in twain, Like the ocean tempest-shaken, like the sun in eclipse pale, Like a crushed repenting rishi when his truth and virtue fail!
Breathless mused the anxious Rama,—what foul action hath he done, What strange anger fills his father, wherefore greets he not his son?
Ever dear is Queen Kaikeyi to her consort and her king, Hath some angry accent escaped thee thus his royal heart to wring, Speak, my ever-loving mother, speak the truth for thou must know, What distress or deep disaster pains his heart and clouds his brow?
Listen more, in bygone seasons,—Rama thou wert then unborn,— I had saved thy royal father, he a gracious boon had sworn, But his feeble heart repenting is by pride and passion stirred, He would break his royal promise as a caitiff breaks his word, Years have passed and now the monarch would his ancient word forego, He would build a needless causeway when the waters ceased to flow!
Tender-hearted is the monarch, age and sorrow dim his eye, And the anguish of a father checks his speech and purpose high, For the love he bears thee, Rama, cruel vow he may not speak, I have spoke his will and mandate, and thy true obedience seek.
Keep thy fasts and vigils, Sita, while thy Rama is away, Faith in Gods and faith in virtue on thy bosom hold their sway, Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] In the early watch of morning to the Gods for blessings pray, To my father Dasa-ratha honour and obeisance pay, To my mother, Queen Kausalya, is thy dearest tendance due, Offer her thy consolation, be a daughter fond and true!
For my mother often taught me and my father often spake, That her home the wedded woman doth beside her husband make, As the shadow to the substance, to her lord is faithful wife, And she parts not from her consort till she parts with fleeting life!
Bid me seek the sylvan greenwoods, wooded hills and plateaus high, Limpid rills and crystal nullas as they softly ripple by, And where in the lake of lotus tuneful ducks their plumage lave, Let me with my loving Rama skim the cool translucent wave!
Years will pass in happy union,—happiest lot to woman given,— Sita seeks not throne or empire, nor the brighter joys of heaven, Heaven conceals not brighter mansions in its sunny fields of pride, Where without her lord and husband faithful Sita would reside!
Grant me then thy sweet permission,—faithful to thy glorious star, Lakshman shall not wait and tarry when his Rama wanders far, Grant me then thy loving mandate,—Lakshman hath no wish to stay, None shall bar the faithful younger when the elder leads the way!
All alone with gentle Sita thou shalt track thy darksome way, Grant it, that thy faithful Lakshman shall protect her night and day, Grant it, with his bow and quiver Lakshman shall the forests roam, And his axe shall fell the jungle, and his hands shall rear the home!
Grant it, in the deepest woodlands he shall seek the forest fruit, Berries dear to holy hermits and the sweet and luscious root, And when with thy meek-eyed Sita thou shalt seek the mountain crest, Grant it, Lakshman ever duteous watch and guard thy nightly rest!
But the true and righteous woman, loving spouse and changeless wife, Faithful to her lord and consort holds him dearer than her life, Ever true and righteous Sita, follow still my godlike son, Like a God to thee is Rama in the woods or on the throne!
Therefore tend him as thy father, as thy mother tend his wife, And to thee, like fair Ayodhya be thy humble forest life, Go, my son, the voice of Duty bids my gallant Lakshman go, Serve thy elder with devotion and with valour meet thy foe!
And around the aged monarch rose the piercing voice of pain, Like the wail of forest creatures when the forest-king is slain, And the faint and feeble monarch was with age and anguish pale, Like the darkened moon at eclipse when his light and radiance fail!
Faithful Lakshman, thou hast nobly stood by us when sorrows fell, Guard my Sita by thy valour, by thy virtues tend her well, Wait on her while from this river Rama seeks his thirst to slake, On this first night of his exile food nor fruit shall Rama take, Thou Sumantra, tend the horses, darkness comes with close of day, Weary was the endless journey, weary is our onward way!
On a bed of leaf and verdure Rama and his Sita slept, Faithful Lakshman with Sumantra nightly watch and vigils kept, And the stars their silent lustre on the weary exiles shed, And on wood and rolling river night her darksome mantle spread.
Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] Then returning to the pathway we shall march ere break of day, So our true and faithful people shall not know our southward way.
VI: Crossing the Ganges. Oft from tree and darksome jungle, Lakshman ever true and brave. Plucked the fruit or smiling blossom and to gentle Sita gave, Oft to Rama turned his consort, pleased and curious evermore, Asked the name of tree or creeper, fruit or flower unseen before.
Two miles thus they walked and wandered and the belt of forest passed, Slew the wild deer of the jungle, spread on leaves their rich repast, Peacocks flew around them gaily, monkeys leaped on branches bent, Fifth night of their endless wanderings in the forest thus they spent.
Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] Oft the lone and startled wild cock sounds its clarion full and clear, And from flowering fragrant forests peacocks send the answering cheer, Oft the elephant of jungle ranges in this darksome wood, For yon peak is Chitra-kuta loved by saints and hermits good, Oft the chanted songs of hermits echo through its sacred grove, Peaceful on its shady uplands, Sita, we shall live and rove!
Ancient Bard of ancient day, Deeds of virtue and of valour live in thy undying lay! Slay the black buck, gallant Lakshman, and a sacrifice prepare, For the moment is auspicious and the day is bright and fair.
Pure from bath, with sacred mantra Rama did the holy rite, And invoked the bright Immortals for to bless the dwelling site, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] To the kindly Viswa-devas, and to Rudra fierce and strong, And to Vishnu Lord of Creatures, Rama raised the sacred song.
Oft in madness and in folly we destroy the mango grove, Plant the gorgeous gay palasa for the red flower that we love, Fruitless as the red palasa is the karma I have sown, And my barren lifetime withers through the deed which is my own!
Listen to my tale, Kausalya, in my days of youth renowned, I was called a sabda-bedhi, archer prince who shot by sound, I could hit the unseen target, by the sound my aim could tell,— Blindly drinks a child the poison, blindly in my pride I fell!
I was called a sabda-bedhi, archer prince who shot by sound, On the unseen fancied tusker dealt a sure and deadly wound, Ah! Old and feeble are my parents, sightless by the will of fate, Thirsty in their humble cottage for their duteous boy they wait, And thy shaft that kills me, monarch, bids my ancient parents die.
Helpless, friendless, they will perish, in their anguish deep and high! Hasten to my parents, monarch, soothe their sorrow and their ire. For the tears of good and righteous wither like the forest fire, Short the pathway to the asram, soon the cottage thou shalt see, Soothe their anger by entreaty, ask their grace and pardon free!
Buffalo or deer of jungle stealing for his midnight drink, And I heard a distant gurgle, some wild beast the water drunk, So I thought,—some jungle tusker lifting water with its trunk.
And I sent my fatal arrow on the unknown, unseen prey, Speeding to the spot I witnessed,—there a dying hermit lay! From his pierced and quivering bosom then the cruel dart I drew, And he sorrowed for his parents as his spirit heavenward flew, Thus unconscious, holy father, I have slayed thy stainless son, Speak my penance, or in mercy pardon deed unknowing done!
See the parents weep and perish, grieving for a slaughtered son, Thou shalt weep and thou shalt perish for a loved and righteous son!
Rama eldest born and dearest, Lakshman true and faithful son, Ah! Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Heir and Regent of Kosala! Render justice pure and spotless as befits thy royal line, And to save the good and guiltless, Bharat, be it ever thine, For the tears of suffering virtue wither like the thunder levin, And they slay our men and cattle like the wrath of righteous heaven, Fruitful be thy lore of Veda, fruitful be each pious rite, Be thy queen a fruitful mother, be thy empire full of might!
For our ancient Law ordaineth and thy Duty makes it plain, Eldest-born succeeds his father as the king of earth and main, By the fair Earth loved and welcomed, Rama, be her wedded lord, As by planet-jewelled Midnight is the radiant Moon adored!
Lastly came the soft-eyed Sita with obeisance soft and sweet, And with hands in meekness folded bent her tresses to their feet, Pain and anguish smote their bosoms, round their Sita as they prest, As a mother clasps a daughter, clasped her in their loving breast!
Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] Torn from royal hall and mansion, ranger of the darksome wood, Reft of home and kith and kindred by her forest hut she stood!
But thy sweet face, gentle Sita, is like faded lotus dry, And like lily parched by sunlight, lustreless thy beauteous eye, Like the gold untimely tarnished is thy sorrow-shaded brow, Like the moon by shadows darkened is thy form of beauty now!
Love nor friendship doth a mortal to his kith or kindred own. Entering on this wide earth friendless, and departing all alone. Foolishly upon the father and the mother dotes the son, Kinship is an idle fancy,—save thyself thy kith is none!
Edition: current; Page: [ 71 ] In the wayside inn he halteth who in distant lands doth roam, Leaves it with the dawning daylight for another transient home, Thus on earth are kin and kindred, home and country, wealth and store, We but meet them on our journey, leave them as we pass before!
I weep for erring mortals who on erring duty bent Sacrifice their dear enjoyment till their barren life is spent, Who to Gods and to the Fathers vainly still their offerings make, Waste of food!
And the food by one partaken, can it nourish other men, Food bestowed upon a Brahman, can it serve our Fathers then?
Crafty priests have forged these maxims and with selfish objects say,— Make thy gifts and do thy penance, leave thy worldly wealth and pray!
There is no Hereafter, Rama, vain the hope and creed of men, Seek the pleasures of the present, spurn illusions poor and vain, Take the course of sense and wisdom, cast all idle faith aside, Take the kingdom Bharat offers, rule Ayodhya in thy pride!
Gods nor Fathers nor the Vedas counsel tortuous paths of sin! Pardon, rishi, still unchanging shall remain my promise given To my mother Queen Kaikeyi, to my father now in heaven, Pardon, rishi, still in jungle we shall seek the forest fare, Worship Gods who watch our actions, and pervade the earth and air!
VI: The Hermitge of Atri With the sandals of his elder Bharat to Ayodhya went, Rama sought for deeper forests on his arduous duty bent, Wandering with his wife and Lakshman slowly sought the hermitage.
Where resided saintly Atri, Vedic Bard and ancient sage. Hastening from each distant region feathered songsters seek their nest, Twitter in the leafy thickets ere they seek their nightly rest, Hastening from their pure ablutions with their pitchers smooth and fair, In their dripping barks the hermits to their evening rites repair, And in sacred agni-hotra holy anchorites engage, And a wreath of smoke ascending marks the altar of each sage.
Now a deeper shadow mantles bush and brake and trees around, And a thick and inky darkness falls upon the distant ground, Midnight prowlers of the jungle steal beneath the sable shade, But the tame deer by the altar seeks his wonted nightly bed.
Where with anxious heart awaited Rama prince of righteous fame. Coats of bark and scattered kusa spake their peaceful pure abode, Seat of pious rite and penance which with holy splendour glowed, Forest songsters knew the asram and the wild deer cropt its blade, And the sweet-voiced sylvan wood-nymph haunted oft its holy shade, Brightly blazed the sacred altar, vase and ladle stood around, Fruit and blossom, skin and faggot, sanctified the holy ground.
Brahma and the flaming Agni, Vishnu lord of heavenly light, Indra and benign Vivasat ruler of the azure height, Soma and the radiant Bhaga, and Kuvera lord of gold, And Vidhatri great Creator worshipped by the saints of old, Vayu breath of living creatures, Yama monarch of the dead, And Varuna with his fetters which the trembling sinners dread, Holy Spirit of Gayatri goddess of the morning prayer, Vasus and the hooded Nagas, golden-winged Garuda fair, Kartikeya heavenly leader strong to conquer and to bless, Dharma god of human duty and of human righteousness, Shrines of all these bright Immortals ruling in the skies above, Filled the pure and peaceful forest with a calm and holy love!
Saint Agastya raised the princes, greeted them in accents sweet, Gave them fruit and herb and water, offered them the honoured seat, With libations unto Agni offered welcome to each guest, Food and drink beseeming hermits on the wearied princes pressed.
Take this bow, heroic Rama,—need for warlike arms is thine,— Gems of more than earthly radiance on the goodly weapon shine, Worshipper of righteous Vishnu!
Take this sabre golden-hilted in its case of burnished gold, Not unworthy of a monarch and a warrior true and bold, Impious foes of bright Immortals know these weapons dread and dire, Mowing down the ranks of foemen, scathing like the forest fire!
Be these weapons thy companions,—Rama, thou shalt need them oft, — Meet and conquer still thy foemen like the Thunder-God aloft!
How unlike the fickle woman, true while Fame and Fortune smile, Faithless when misfortunes gather, loveless in her wicked wile, How unlike the changeful woman, false as light the lightnings fling, Keen as sabre, quick as tempest, swift as bird upon its wing!
Stately Sal and feathered palm-tree guard this darksome forest-land, Golden date and flowering mango stretch afar on either hand, Asok thrives and blazing Kinsuk, Chandan wafts a fragrance rare, Aswa-karna and Khadira by the Sami dark and fair, Beauteous spot for hermit-dwelling joyous with the voice of song, Haunted by the timid wild deer and by black buck fleet and strong!
To the river for ablutions Lakshman went of warlike fame, With a store of fragrant lotus and of luscious berries came, Sacrificing to the Bright Gods sacred hymns and mantras said, Proudly then unto his elder shewed the home his hand had made.
Sweeping blasts from western mountains through the gorges whistle by And the saras and the curlew raise their shrill and piercing cry, Boundless fields of wheat and barley are with dewdrops moist and wet, And the golden rice of winter ripens like the clustering date, Peopled marts and rural hamlets wake to life and cheerful toil, And the peaceful happy nations prosper on their fertile soil!
What though she a Raksha maiden, poor in beauty plain in face, Fell her glances passion-laden on the prince of peerless grace. Who be thou in these lone regions where the Rakshas hold their sway, Wherefore in a lonely cottage in this darksome jungle stay?
Human flesh is food of Rakshas! Sita is my honoured wife, With a rival loved and cherished cruel were thy wedded life But no consort follows Lakshman, peerless is his comely face, Dauntless is his warlike valour, matchless is his courtly grace, And he leads no wife or consort to this darksome woodland grove, With no rival to thy passion seek his ample-hearted love!
Bright his bosom gem-bespangled, soft the lustre of his eye, Lighting up the gloomy jungle as the Moon lights up the sky, And his gentle voice and glances and his graceful steps and light, Fill my heart with eager longing and my soul with soft delight!
To the dread and darksome forest with thy keenest arrows speed, Help thy elder and thy monarch, sore his danger and his need, For perchance the cruel Rakshas gather round his lonesome path, As the mighty bull is slaughtered by the lions in their wrath!
And I may not leave thee, Lady, in this cottage all alone! Sita, thou hast heard my elder bid me in this cottage stay, Lakshman may not leave thee, Lady, for his duty—to obey, Ruthless Rakshas roam the forest to revenge their leader slain, Various are their arts and accents; chase thy thought of causeless pain!
False thy hope as foul thy purpose! Sita is a faithful wife, Sita follows saintly Rama, true in death as true in life!
I obey thy mandate, to my elder now I go, Guardian Spirits of the forest watch thee from each secret foe, Omens dark and signs of danger meet my pained and aching sight, May I see thee by thy Rama, guarded by his conquering might!
Lighting up the lonely cottage Sita sat in radiance high, As the Moon with streaks of silver fills the lonely midnight sky, Lighting up the gloomy woodlands with her eyes serenely fair, With her bark-clad shape of beauty mantled by her raven hair!
On thy lips of ruddy coral teeth of tender jasmine shine, In thy eyes of limpid lustre dwells a light of love divine, Tall and slender, softly rounded, are thy limbs of beauty rare, Like the swelling fruit of tala heaves thy bosom sweetly fair!
Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] Goddess or Gandharva maiden wears no brighter form or face, Woman seen by eyes of mortals owns not such transcendent grace.
Wherefore then, in lonesome forest, nymph or maiden, make thy stay, Where the jungle creatures wander and the Rakshas hold their sway?
Lady of the sylvan forest! Speak thy lineage, heaven-descended! But the scheming Queen Kaikeyi claimed a long-forgotten boon, That my consort should be exiled and her son should fill the throne, She would take no rest or slumber, nourishment of drink or food, Till her Bharat ruled the empire, Rama banished to the wood!
Five and twenty righteous summers graced my good and gracious lord, True to faith and true to duty, true in purpose deed and word, Loved of all his loyal people, rich in valour and in fame, For the rite of consecration Rama to his father came.
This, O pious-hearted hermit, is his story of distress, And his young and faithful brother follows him in wilderness, Lion in his warlike valour, hermit in his saintly vow, Lakshman with his honoured elder wanders through the forest now.
Knowest thou Rama proud and princely, sinless in his saintly life, Stately as the tall Nyagrodha?
Stainless as the Moon in glory, stainless in his deed and word, Rich in valour and in virtue,—Rama is my wedded lord! Help me, ever righteous Rama, duty bade thee yield thy throne, Duty bids thee smite the sinful, save the wife who is thy own, Thou art king and stern chastiser of each deed of sin and shame, Hurl thy vengeance on the Raksha who insults thy faithful dame!
Towering peaks and lofty mountains, wooded hills sublime and high, Far-extending gloomy ranges heaving to the azure sky, In your voice of pealing thunder to my lord and consort say, Speak to Rama, that his Sita ruthless Ravan bears away!
Unseen dwellers of the woodlands, spirits of the rock and fell, Sita renders you obeisance as she speaks her sad farewell, Whisper to my righteous Rama when he seeks his homeward way, Speak to Rama, that his Sita ruthless Ravan bears away!
Ah, my Rama, true and tender! True to duty, true to virtue, Rama passed his forest life, Till a false perfidious Raksha stole his fair and faithful wife, And the anguish-stricken husband seeks thy friendship and thy aid,— Mutual sorrow blends your fortunes, be ye friends in mutual need!
Spacious is yon rocky cavern fragrant with the mountain air, Bright with lily and with lotus, watered by a streamlet fair, Here we dwell till month of Kartik when the clouded sky will clear, And the time of war and vengeance on our foeman shall be near.
On a high and open terrace with auspicious garlands graced, Facing eastward, in his glory was the brave Sugriva placed, Water from each holy river, from each tirtha famed of old, From the broad and boundless ocean, was arranged in jars of gold, Edition: current; Page: [ ] And from vase and horn of wild bull, on their monarch and their lord, Holy consecrating water chiefs and loyal courtiers poured.
Edition: current; Page: [ ] Mark the streaks of golden lustre lighting up the checkered sky, Like a lover chandan -painted in each breeze it heaves a sigh, And the earth is hot and feverish, moistened with the tears of rain, Sighing like my anguished Sita when she wept in woe and pain!
Fair and tall as holy hermits, stand yon shadow-mantled hills, Murmuring mantras with the zephyr, robed in threads of sparkling rills, Fair and young as gallant coursers neighing forth their thunder cries, Lashed by golden whips of lightning are the dappled sunlit skies!
Ah, my lost and loving Sita! Seek where clans of skilful weavers dwell upon the eastern shore, And from virgin mines of silver miners work the sparkling ore, In the realms of uncouth nations, in the islets of the sea, In the mountains of the ocean, wander far and wander free!
Search the country of Saurashtras, of Bahlikas strong and brave, And each busy mart and seaport on the western ocean wave, Castles girt by barren mountains, deserts by the sandy sea, Forests of the fragrant ketak, regions of the tamal tree!
Search the ocean port of Pattan shaded by its fruitful trees, Where the feathery groves of cocoa court the balmy western breeze, Where on peaks of Soma-giri lordly lions wander free, Where the waters of the Indus mingle with the mighty sea!
Mlechchas and the wild Pulindas in the rocky regions dwell, Madra chiefs and mighty Kurus live within each fertile vale, Wild Kambojas of the mountains, Yavanas of wondrous skill, Sakas swooping from their gorges, Pattanas of iron will!
Search the land of Soma-srama where the gay Gandharvas dwell, In the table land of Kala search each rock and ravine well! Creepers threw their clasping tendrils round the trees of ample height, Stately palm and feathered cocoa, fruit and blossom pleased the sight, Edition: current; Page: [ ] Herds of tame and gentle creatures in the grassy meadow strayed, Kokils sang in leafy thicket, birds of plumage lit the shade, Limpid lakes of scented lotus with their fragrance filled the air, Homes and huts of rustic beauty peeped through bushes green and fair, Blossoms rich in tint and fragrance in the checkered shadow gleamed, Clustering fruits of golden beauty in the yellow sunlight beamed!
Rose a palace in the woodlands girt by pillars strong and high, Snowy-white like fair Kailasa cleaving through the azure sky, And its steps were ocean coral and its pavement yellow gold, White and gay and heaven-aspiring rose the structure high and bold!
By the rich and royal mansion Hanuman his eyes did rest, On a woman sad and sorrowing in her sylvan garments drest, Like the moon obscured and clouded, dim with shadows deep and dark, Like the smoke-enshrouded red fire, dying with a feeble spark, Like the tempest-pelted lotus by the wind and torrent shaken, Like the beauteous star Rohini by a graha overtaken!
Fasts and vigils paled her beauty, tears bedimmed her tender grace, Anguish dwelt within her bosom, sorrow darkened on her face, Edition: current; Page: [ ] And she lived by Rakshas guarded, as a faint and timid deer, Severed from her herd and kindred when the prowling wolves are near, And her raven locks ungathered hung behind in single braid, And her gentle eye was lightless, and her brow was hid in shade!
This is she! Dasa-ratha, promise-fettered, then his cruel mandate gave, Rama with his wife and brother lived in woods and rocky cave, And he slayed the deer of jungle and he slept in leafy shade, Stern destroyer of the Rakshas in the pathless forests strayed, Till the monarch of the Rakshas,—fraudful is his impious life,— Cheated Rama in the jungle, from his cottage stole his wife!
Speak, if Rama lives in safety in the woods or by the hill, And if young and gallant Lakshman faithful serves his brother still, Speak, if Rama in his anger and his unforgiving ire, Hurls destruction on my captor like the world-consuming fire, Speak, if Rama in his sorrow wets his pale and drooping eye, If the thought of absent Sita wakes within his heart a sigh!
Hanuman, my friend and comrade, lead me to the distant isle, Where my soft-eyed Sita lingers midst the Rakshas dark and vile, Where my true and tender consort like a lone and stricken deer, Girt by Rakshas stern and ruthless sheds the unavailing tear, Where she weeps in ceaseless anguish, sorrow-stricken sad and pale, Like the Moon by dark clouds shrouded then her light and lustre fail!
Speak your counsel, gallant leaders, Ravan is intent to hear, Triumph waits on fearless wisdom, speak your thoughts without a fear, Wisest monarchs act on counsel from his men for wisdom known, Next are they who in their wisdom and their daring act alone, Last, unwisest are the monarchs who nor death nor danger weigh, Think not, ask not friendly counsel, by their passions borne away!
Hanuman approached in secret, stealing like a craven spy, Not from me in open combat would alive the Vanar fly, Let him come with all his forces, to the confines of the sea I will chase the scattered army and thy town from foemen free!
Or to deeper counsel listen! What dark deed of crime or folly hath the righteous Rama done, That you stole his faithful consort unprotected and alone.
For the Lord of Sky shall tremble when he sees my stature high, And he hears his thunders echoed by my loud and answering cry, Rama armed with ample quiver shall no second arrow send, Ere I slay him in the battle and his limb from limb I rend!
Wiser heads than Kumbha-karna right and true from wrong may know, Faithful to his race and monarch he shall face the haughty foe, Joy thee in thy pleasures, Ravan, rule thy realm in regal pride, When I slay the hermit Rama, widowed Sita be thy bride!
Edition: current; Page: [ ] O, the love of near relations! Rain-drops fall upon the lotus but unmingling hang apart, False relations round us gather but they blend not heart with heart, Winter clouds are big with thunder but they shed no freshening rain, False relations smile and greet us but their soothing words are vain, Bees are tempted by the honey but from flower to flower they range, False relations share our favour but in secret seek a change!
Blind to reason and to wisdom, Ravan, seek thy destined fate, For thy impious lust of woman, for thy dark unrighteous hate, Blind to danger and destruction, deaf to word of counsel given, By the flaming shafts of Rama thou shalt die by will of Heaven!
Yet, O! All the day the battle lasted, endless were the tale to tell, What unnumbered Vanars perished and what countless Rakshas fell, Darkness came, the fiery foemen urged the still unceasing fight, Struggling with a deathless hatred fiercer in the gloom of night!
Vainly then the royal brothers fought the cloud-enshrouded foe, Vainly sought the unseen warrior dealing unresisted blow, Fastened by a noose of Naga forced by hidden foe to yield, Rama and the powerless Lakshman fell and fainted on the field!
Rama soul of truth and virtue sleeps the sleep that knows no morn! Listen more, my gentle Sita, though a captive in our keep, For thy woes and for thy anguish see a Raksha woman weep, Though thy Rama armed in battle is our unrelenting foe, For a true and stainless warrior see a Raksha filled with woe!
Edition: current; Page: [ ] Fainting on the field of battle, blood-ensanguined in their face, They shall live to fight and conquer, worthy of their gallant race, Cold nor rigid are their features, darkness dwells not on their brow, Weep not thus, my gentle Sita,—hasten we to Lanka now.
Brave Sugriva king of Vanars met the foeman fierce and strong, And a rock with mighty effort on the startled Ravan flung, Vain the toil, disdainful Ravan dashed aside the flying rock, Brave Sugriva pierced by arrows fainted neath the furious shock.
Next Susena chief and elder, Nala and Gavaksha bold, Hurled them on the path of Ravan speeding in his car of gold, Vainly heaved the rock and missile, vainly did with trees assail, Onward sped the conquering Ravan, pierced the fainting Vanars fell.
Ravan longs to lay thee low! Bleeding from the darts of Lakshman, pale with anger, wounded sore, Ravan drew at last his Sakti, gift of Gods in days of yore, Javelin of flaming splendour, deadly like the shaft of Fate, Ravan hurled on dauntless Lakshman in his fierce and furious hate.
Next Rishabha and brave Nila and the bold Sarabha came, Gavaksha and Gandha-madan, chieftains of a deathless fame, But the spear of Kumbha-karna hurled to earth his feeble foes, Dreadful was the field of carnage, loud the cry of battle rose!
Angad prince of fair Kishkindha, filled with anger and with shame, Tore a rock with wrathful prowess, to the fatal combat came, Short the combat, soon the Raksha caught and turned his foe around, Hurled him in his deathful fury, bleeding, senseless on the ground!
With his offerings and his garlands, Indrajit with spices rare, Worshipped holy Vaiswa-nara on the altar bright and fair, Spear and mace were ranged in order, dart and bow and shining blade, Sacred fuel, blood-red garments, fragrant flowers were duly laid, Head of goat as black as midnight offered then the warrior brave, And the shooting tongue of red fire omens of a conquest gave, Curling to the right and smokeless, red and bright as molten gold, Tongue of flame received the offering of the hero true and bold!
Victory the sign betokens! Bow and dart and shining blade, Sanctified by holy mantras, by the Fire the warrior laid, Then with weapons consecrated, hid in mists as once before, Indrajit on helpless foemen did his fatal arrows pour!
Fled the countless Vanar forces, panic-stricken, crushed and slain, And the dead and dying warriors strewed the gory battle plain, Then on Rama, and on Lakshman, from his dark and misty shroud.
Indrajit discharged his arrows bright as sunbeams through a cloud. Gallant sons of Kumbha-karna vainly fought to stem the tide, Hanuman and brave Sugriva slew the brothers in their pride, Makaraksha, shark-eyed warrior, vainly struggled with the foe, Rama laid him pierced and lifeless by an arrow from his bow.
Listen youth! Listen more! Full of years,—so oft I pondered,—when the monarch Ravan dies, Indrajit shall watch his bedside, Indrajit shall close his eyes, Edition: current; Page: [ ] But the course of nature changes, and the father weeps the son, Youth is fallen, and the aged lives to fight the foe alone!
Deep in this bosom is a cruel grief engraved! Art thou fallen, gallant Lakshman, death and faintness on me creep, Weary of this fatal contest let me by my brother sleep, Weary of the strife and triumph, since my faithful friend is gone, Rama follows in his footsteps and his task on earth is done!Valmiki Ramayana: eastern recension. Sundarakandam, Band 3,Teil 2. Cover. Vālmīki. Indian Heritage Trust, 0 Rezensionen. The Ramayan is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is attributed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon (smṛti). The Ramayana is one. Lesen Sie „Hindu literature: Comprising The Book of good counsels, Nala and Damayanti, The Ramayana, and Sakoontala [Illustrated]“ von Anonymous. Das Ramayana in deutscher Übersetzung. erschienen) und der Verlag meiner Ausgabe: Eastern Book House, Rajendra Nagar/Patna, Nachdruck von Find Instant Quality Results Now! Get Ramayana Audio Book. He is shocked and infuriated by the news that Akampana Stargames Belote, of a single man who defeated fourteen thousand rakshasas, including his cousin Khara. He shoots the stag with an arrow, and Maricha takes on his rakshasa appearance once again. In English, of which Super Bowl Playoffs had complete mastery, his first considerable essay was a history of Civilisation in Ancient India, which, though not a work Koffer Drucker original research, fulfilled a useful purpose in its day. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism Swaminarayanism. She currently works as a freelance writer and researcher. View all 8 comments. And to trace the influence of the Indian Epics on the life and civilisation of the nation, and on the development of their modern languages, literatures, and religious reforms, is to comprehend the real history of the people during three thousand years.